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Conversely, this virus was rarely found in the adult population during the same period. Further studies are needed to establish whether this recently described parvovirus is pathogenic by using well-matched control groups and sequential samples to detect viral persistence. Acknowledgments We thank Johanne Frenette and Chantal Rhéaume for technical contributions. Dr Longtin is a resident in infectious diseases and medical microbiology at Laval University in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. His research interests include the epidemiology of emerging viruses and pharmacokinetic studies of antiretroviral agents.

BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:109. Hamelin ME, Côté S, Laforge J, Lampron N, Bourbeau J, Weiss K, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection in adults with communityacquired pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:498–502. Boivin G, de Serres G, Cote S, Gilca R, Abed Y, Rochette L, et al. Human metapneumovirus infections in hospitalized children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:634–40. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M. MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment.

After 72 days at 44°C, reduction in viral RNA production by the KEN-3829 strain was 6,500-fold, compared with the NY99 strain reduction of 17-fold. This finding suggested that efficient replication at high temperatures, as occurs in American crows, could be an important virulence factor that determines the pathogenic phenotype of the NY99 strain (10). To further investigate the molecular determinants of virulence of lineage 2 WNV strains, we sequenced the genomes of highly and less neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains that were isolated from patients in South Africa and that had previously been characterized with respect to gene expression and pathogenicity (4).

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Emerging Infectious Diseases - Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2008 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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