By George Dubpernell
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Additional info for Electrodeposition of Chromium from Chromic Acid Solutions
These had a normal bright chromium plate, accompanied by a welt of dull chromium plate on the low current density areas which appeared to be thicker than the bright chromium on the high current density areas. The cross section of one of these thread guides at about 25 magnifications is shown in Fig. 9. It appears 30 Electrodeposition of Chromium from Chromic Acid Solutions Fig. 9. Cross section of steel thread guide 1/8" diameter at 25X showing normal hard chromium plate and welt of thick, dull chromium on low current density area due to chloride in solution.
6. The contrary indication of many workers of fluoride as a weaker catalyst than sulfate (see Haring and Barrows [ 1 ] for example) is due to making the tests in glass containers. The fluoride forms hydrofluoric acid in the strong chromic acid medium, and this rapidly reacts with glass or any other source of silica to give sihcofluoride, which is only about one-half as strong a catalyst as sulfate. The simple fluoride ion is a much stronger catalyst than sulfate, about four times as strong [ 1 1 ] .
5 times as strong as sulfate. 5 times as strong a catalyst as sulfate. Stareck, Seyb, Johnson, and Rowan  found a very strong effect of chloride to promote cracking The Catalyst Balance 29 and cut down the thickness to which bright crack-free chromium plate could be produced. In their limited range of conditions they consider chloride to be 14 times as strong a catalyst as sulfate. Solov'eva, Lapshina and Vagramyan  and Kazakov and Vagramyan  have reported good current efficiencies in solutions catalyzed with chlo ride alone, but did not describe their deposits.
Electrodeposition of Chromium from Chromic Acid Solutions by George Dubpernell