By Andreas Kappos, G.G. Penelis
An English version of a profitable Greek textbook on earthquake resistant concrete constructions, this paintings presents an advent to the topic for pro engineers, researchers and complex students.
summary: An English version of a profitable Greek textbook on earthquake resistant concrete buildings, this paintings offers an creation to the topic for pro engineers, researchers and complicated scholars
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Extra info for Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures
Spectral modal analysis is the most widely used method for the design of structures. Normalized spectra, based on a number of seismic records and scaled to a typical reference intensity, are used as response spectra. The use of normalized spectra provides a simple means for studying the variation of the response to different seismic inputs. In the following chapters frequent reference will be made to normalized response spectra. According to the second method known as time-history analysis, the evolution of the response of the model of the structure with time is determined, when this model is subjected to a base accelerogram.
12 represents the energy that is dissipated in every loading cycle in the form of heat, due to the plastic behaviour of the material. It is obvious that the larger the area of the hysteresis loop, that is, the higher the deformation level of the material, the larger the dissipated energy and therefore the damping. 12 A typical hysteresis loop. 13 Schematic presentation of the restoring force P=Pe+Pd. can also express, even approximately, the hysteretic damping. 13). 13. 22) where damping. 21) is used to express the hysteretic damping of the inelastic behaviour, the equivalent hysteretic damping ratio ζe=c/ccr results from energy criteria as follows.
4 s; (b) accelerogram, (c) acceleration spectrum; (d) velocity spectrum; (e) displacement spectrum. 6). For high values of damping the spectra become smooth. 10. Studying the variations of the acceleration spectrum as a function of T, one can see that for T= 0, that is for a completely rigid structure, With the maximum acceleration that is developed on the oscillating mass is equal to the increase of the natural period the absolute acceleration Sa of the system increases as well and for a value of the natural period T=Tprevail, Sa reaches its maximum value which is two to six times the This maximum appears in systems whose natural period falls in the vicinity of the prevailing period Tprevail of the accelerogram which is the prevailing period of the seismic excitation.
Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures by Andreas Kappos, G.G. Penelis