Prior to now decade, using geotextiles has elevated considerably in quite a lot of civil engineering purposes: street building, coastal engineering, stabilization of slopes and conserving buildings, reinforcement of foundations, drainage and so forth. This paintings makes a speciality of the criteria which make certain the extent of long term functionality of those fabrics reminiscent of their mechanical and actual houses and physico-chemical aging tactics. (It contains contributions to a global seminar held at Saint-Remy-les-Chevreuse, France, in November 1986)
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The test may be carried out on either unconfined or soil-confined specimens using the apparatus shown in Figs 3(a) and 3(b) respectively. Details of the apparatus and test method are provided in an earlier publication (Murray and McGown, 1987). The procedure involves monitoring the deformation of a geotextile specimen, generally 200 mm 44 Fig. 3(b) Apparatus used in sustained load test on confined geotextile specimen wide by 100 mm in length, when subjected to a sustained load. The assessment of the strain-time behaviour should be carried out for a sufficient range of loads to significantly exceed those anticipated for the structure.
6. Safety factor considerations in the design of reinforced soil structures Test are normally carried out on ex-works quality specimens to take account of variations in material properties during manufacture, but for design purposes consideration must be also given to variations which result from construction and environmental damage. 54 Fig. 3kN The conventional approach in geotechnical engineering projects for taking account of such variations in material properties as well as the influence of other factors such as construction tolerances, deviations in loads and errors or inaccuracies in design, is to apply an overall factor of safety to the properties determined in testing.
For physical models, see Figure 2) This molecular structure is indeed reflected in the creep behaviour, In the case of PE and PP the chains slip along one another in the crystalline regions under prolonged loading. In the case of PETP this slippage in the crystalline regions hardly occurs if at all. The creep of PETP is much lower than that of PP and PE under comparable loading conditions. 4. Influence of the construction The yarns in a geotextile are rarely straight and exactly positioned in the direction of the tension applied.
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