By A. Mantovani, F. Maranghi (auth.), P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, L. Hens, C.V. Howard (eds.)
In contemporary years, expanding awareness and assets were delivered to undergo at the dating among the surroundings and congenital ailments. those ailments have been formerly regarded as more often than not because of genetic reasons. even if the significance of genes as components in causation is accredited, environmental components appear to be implicated simply as strongly. This e-book explores a few additional recommendations that experience arisen from more moderen perceptions of environmental results and their attainable interactions with dwelling platforms. dialogue and presentation of outdated and novel principles is focused at constructing a extra holistic and united notion of the interplay among congenital ailments and the environment.
Amongst the subjects mentioned are:
-effects of prenatal publicity to poisonous chemicals
-intra-uterine publicity to medications
-effects of endocrine disrupters
-environmental threat and intercourse ratio in newborns
-surveillance of environmental impact
-research and policy
This booklet may be of curiosity to researchers in environmental technological know-how and/or human ecology, well-being execs, NGOs, and the overall public.
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60, 49. Steinhardt, G. F. (2004) Endocrine disruption and hypospadias, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 545, 203-215. Stoker, T. , Parks, L. , Gray, L. E. and Cooper, R. L. (2000) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee, Crit Rev. Toxicol. 30, 197-252. Strand, M. , Setchell, B. P. and Soder, O. (2005) Interleukin-18 is expressed in rat testis and may promote germ cell growth, Mol.
2006). Consideration of the prevalence within a population, specific genetic individual susceptibility, and the methods to detect and test these factors, such as micro arrays and pharmacogenetic studies, represent some important aspects in clinical assessments. 3. Endocrine disrupter exposure and male congenital malformations One of the major concerns about epidemiological studies is whether they are actually representative of the individual: according to certain authors, the principle of ‘the ecological fallacy’ relies on the repeated failure to correlate biological effects observed on a population level with the individual level (Vidaeff and Sever, 2005).
Current recent concepts, such as critical windows of development, when applied to congenital abnormalities, help in understanding the problem more accurately. The main consideration is that the range of answers that can be obtained from research, as well as the quality of knowledge derived, depends entirely on the relevance of the question asked. In that respect, the better the problem formulation, the more valuable the data obtained. The main problem in the field of congenital diseases currently is that methods are rarely standardized, and that not everyone is using unified approaches.
Congenital Diseases and the Environment by A. Mantovani, F. Maranghi (auth.), P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati, L. Hens, C.V. Howard (eds.)