By Matt Kaufmann, Panagiotis Manolios, J Strother Moore
Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach is a textbook creation to computer-aided reasoning. it may be utilized in graduate and upper-division undergraduate classes on software program engineering or formal tools. it's also appropriate along side different books in classes on layout, discrete arithmetic, or idea, specially classes stressing formalism, rigor, or mechanized aid. it's also acceptable for classes on synthetic intelligence or computerized reasoning and as a reference for enterprise and undefined.
Current and software program platforms are usually very advanced and the rage is in the direction of elevated complexity. lots of those platforms are of severe value; consequently to ensure that they behave as anticipated can also be of severe significance. by way of modeling computing structures mathematically, we receive versions that we will be able to turn out behave adequately. The complexity of computing structures makes such proofs very lengthy, complex, and error-prone. To extra bring up self belief in our reasoning, we will use a working laptop or computer application to ascertain our proofs or even to automate a few of their building.
In this booklet we current:
- A functional sensible programming language heavily on the topic of universal Lisp that is used to outline services (which can version computing structures) and to make assertions approximately outlined services;
- A formal common sense during which outlined services correspond to axioms; the common sense is first-order, comprises induction, and permits us to end up theorems in regards to the capabilities;
- The computer-aided reasoning process ACL2, consisting of the programming language, the common sense, and mechanical help for the evidence technique.
Approximately one hundred forty workouts are dispensed through the ebook. extra fabric is freely on hand from the ACL2 domestic web page on the internet, together with suggestions to the workouts, extra workouts, case stories from the spouse e-book, examine papers, and the ACL2 approach with specified documentation.
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Additional info for Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach
That is, the expression x is a variable whose value is specified by the context. The expression 'x is a constant expression whose value is the symbol x. You must write what you mean! Cons objects must be quoted because otherwise they might be confused with function applications. We will return to this point in a moment. The quoted constant 'a may also be written (quote a). The symbol quote is not a function symbol but a special marker indicating that its "argument" is to be taken literally rather than treated as an expression.
Computer-Aided Reasoning © Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000 e* 24 Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach program. This makes it convenient to extend the language. Furthermore, because Lisp provides a garbage collector, the programmer thinks in terms of objects rather than pointers or addresses. In the first three decades after Lisp was invented, many different varieties were developed, including MacLisp , Interlisp , and Zetalisp . In 1984, Guy Steele, in cooperation with the community of Lisp users and developers, described Common Lisp , a variant of MacLisp which standardized features found useful in various Lisp dialects.
This function determines whether e is an element of a linear list. (defun mem (e x) (if (endp x) nil 48 Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach (if (equal e (car x)) t (mem e (cdr x))))) (Mem 'abc '(1 2 abc 4)) evaluates to t and (mem 'xyz '(1 2 abc 4)) evaluates to nil. Note that (mem 2 23) evaluates to nil because 23 is an atom. This function determines the position (if any) at which e first occurs in a linear list. (defun mempos (i e x) (if (endp x) nil (if (equal e (car x)) i (mempos (+ 1 i) e (cdr x))))) (Mempos 0 'abc ,( 1 2 abc 4)) evaluates to 2 and (mempos 0 2 abc 4)) evaluates to nil.
Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach by Matt Kaufmann, Panagiotis Manolios, J Strother Moore