By Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, Larry Peck, George G. Stanley
The Qualitative research chapters at the moment are on hand in a convenient paperback complement, excellent for bundling with the middle textual content, CHEMISTRY, 8th variation, or to be used as a standalone merchandise.
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Extra resources for Chemistry (with CengageNOW Printed Access Card)
A molecule of methane consists of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. The shapes of a few molecules are shown in Figure 1-5 as ball-and-stick models. Atoms are the building blocks of molecules, and molecules are the stable forms of many elements and compounds. We are able to study samples of compounds and elements that consist of large numbers of atoms and molecules. With the scanning tunneling microscope it is now possible to “see” atoms (Figure 1-6). It would take millions of atoms to make a row as long as the diameter of the period at the end of this sentence.
It is mainly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. There are only trace amounts of other substances in the atmosphere. An important characteristic of all mixtures is that they can have variable composition. ) Consequently, repeating the same experiment on mixtures from different sources may give different results, whereas the same treatment of a pure sample will always give the same results. When the distinction between homogeneous mixtures and pure substances was realized and methods were developed (in the late 1700s) for separating mixtures and studying pure substances, consistent results could be obtained.
Successful theories explain observations fully and accurately. More important, they enable us to predict the results of experiments that have not yet been performed. Thus, we should always keep in mind the fact that experiment and theory go hand in hand. They are intimately related parts of our attempt to understand and explain natural phenomena. In this book you will see frequent use of the symbols and . These symbols are icons for “molecular reasoning,” to alert you to a discussion or application in which properties of atoms and molecules are related to the behavior, both physical and chemical, of matter—the very essence of chemistry.
Chemistry (with CengageNOW Printed Access Card) by Kenneth W. Whitten, Raymond E. Davis, Larry Peck, George G. Stanley