By Frank R. Spellman
To successfully take care of any chemical-based challenge, together with toxins, environmental, future health and safeguard execs should have a minimum of a rudimentary knowing of the fundamental strategies of chemistry. This e-book offers such pros with an introductory reference that may support them to appreciate the basic ideas of chemistry and to appreciate these rules as they observe to the environmental compliance courses that control place of work job. Written for a person whose paintings contains environmental administration, making plans, influence overview, safeguard, or compliance, or whose tasks comprise designing, enforcing, and comparing a well-being and protection application, Chemistry for Nonchemists offers a close evaluate of chemistry and its rules, chemical nomenclature, chemical reactions, and their software to regulatory compliance courses below many of the environmental, overall healthiness and safeguard legislation. This e-book might help readers comprehend the "laws" of chemistry and the ramifications of out-of-control chemistry. The publication starts with a evaluate of the periodic desk, a glance at chemical constitution and bonding, and a proof of keyword phrases. the writer, a 35-year environmental veteran, then specializes in the basics of natural and inorganic chemistry, the chemistry of water, and chemical reactions as they practice to environmental compliance courses. From there, he strikes to extra complex discussions of solvents and solutes and concludes with in-depth examinations of complicated sampling and research, the advanced reactions of metals, and chemistry's position in threat review.
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Extra info for Chemistry for Nonchemists: Principles and Applications for Environmental Practitioners
The hydrogen ion concentration is inversely proportional to the hydroxide ion concentration. By measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions (H )םin a solution we can determine whether a solution is an acid or base. While the concentration can be expressed in powers of 10, it is more conveniently expressed as pH. Pure water, for example, has 1 ן10מ7 grams of hydrogen ions per liter. The negative exponent of the hydrogen ion concentration is called the pH of the solution. The pH of water is 7—a neutral solution.
All these metals are soft and silvery. They can be easily cut with a knife to expose a shiny surface, which dulls on oxidation. They are good electrical and thermal conductors. They emit electrons when struck by light. When heated, they emit colored light. ߜ Interesting Point: When heated, lithium turns red, sodium turns yellow, potassium turns red, and cesium turns blue. These metals are highly reactive elements because they easily lose their single outer shell electron to become cations. They are not found uncombined in nature.
For example 4 molecules of carbon dioxide is designated as 4CO2. This means there are a total of 4 C atoms and 8 O atoms in the combination. Just as in mathematics, we can use parentheses to separate parts in a complex formula. One example is the formula for nitroglycerin, a highly explosive substance. This formula shows that nitroglycerin consists of 3 atoms of C, 5 atoms of H, and the 3 molecules of NO3. If the parentheses were not used, the formula would not describe the true structure of the nitroglycerin molecule: C3H5(NO3)3.
Chemistry for Nonchemists: Principles and Applications for Environmental Practitioners by Frank R. Spellman