By Seth C. Rasmussen
Chemistry is in detail excited about the improvement of the oldest identified civilizations, leading to a variety of chemical applied sciences that not just remain a part of smooth civilized societies, yet are so ordinary that it'd be difficult to visualize existence with out them. Such chemical know-how has a truly lengthy and wealthy heritage, in certain cases relationship again to as early as 20,000 BCE.
"Chemistry expertise in Antiquity" goals to offer the invention, improvement, and early heritage of various such chemical applied sciences, with the additional target of together with a couple of smaller matters usually missed within the presentation of early chemical expertise. whereas the ebook doesn't objective to be a finished assurance of the whole variety of chemical applied sciences practiced in the course of antiquity, it offers a consider and appreciation for either the deep historical past concerned with those subject matters, in addition to the complexity of the chemical techniques that have been being applied at one of these very early time period.
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Conservationists are struggling to determine how to transmit and share knowledge fundamental to this site which is unique in the history of development of modern human thought (20). Over the same time period, the caves have been subjected to archaeological examination and the pigments used have been analyzed by some of the most sophisticated modern means of analysis such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, with some very surprising results. 27 In Chemical Technology in Antiquity; Rasmussen; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2015.
After 15 BCE) Vitruvius (full name: Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) was a Roman architect and engineer. Little is known of his life. His major work, De Architectura (40), consists of ten books on all aspects of architecture including city planning. Although Book II contains some information on brick, sand, lime, and stone, it is Book VII that contains most of the material of interest to chemists regarding colored materials. In it he discusses substances such as cinnabar, quicksilver, natural and artificial colors, burnt ochre, blue, white lead, verdigris, purple, and color substitutes.
About 70 recipes deal with precious stones: how to imitate them or to improve the appearance of genuine ones. The remaining recipes describe the mordanting and dyeing of cloth. This document contains some code words, such as “garlic,” which is used to denote human excrement. Curiously, recipes 25 and 60 deal with the cleansing of pearls that have become dirty with use: a pearl fed to a rooster or cock [sic] will be whitened in the crop of the bird. While neither of these documents augments our knowledge of the sources, preparation and uses of inorganic pigments, they are helpful in understanding the arts of metallurgy and metals, the elemental sources of the pigments.
Chemical technology in antiquity by Seth C. Rasmussen