By Maureen Warner-Lewis
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Additional info for Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time, Transforming Cultures
Given this international pressure and the uncertainty in trade which it bred, Spanish slave-dealers in Cuba, for instance, no longer sent cash and vessels to Angola for the purchase and shipment of slaves, and the consequence was that the proceeds of several cargoes shipped at the expense of the Portuguese traders on the coast were entirely appropriated by the 9 Central Africa in the Caribbean Spaniards, who did not even vouchsafe an acknowledgment of the cargoes, but left the captains and supercargoes to think themselves lucky that they escaped with their lives.
Among the Koongo-speaking sub-groups recorded in Cuba are Munsombo ~ Ensombo ~ Zoombo, Makuta from just north of the Zoombo, the Munsundi ~ Nsundi, the Mumboma ~ Mboma ~ Boma, the Yombe ~ Mayombe, the Kabinda, Mpangu, Vili, Biringoyo - an amalgam of Vili and the kingdom of Ngoyo, Mpemba, Kasamba, Musoso ~ Soso ~ Nsonso, and Mumbata ~ Mbata. Mu- originally indicated reference to a single person. Terms like Entotera < ntotila, an honorific for the king of Koongo, and Angunga < a 'of + ngunga 'bell' - a reference to the Catholic churches which typified Mbanza Koongo - were perhaps ancillary ways of identifying Congos reales 'royal Koongo', or persons from the royal city of Mbanza Koongo.
Alienation from a previous identity would have been caused by the dislocation of war or by migration, necessitated by ecological vicissitudes, communal or family disagreements, or provoked by forced or even pragmatic alterations in political and economic allegiances. The adoption of new identities fostered the acceptance of new ideological perspectives, sanctioned new exogamous relationships, and created links between peoples who were once strangers or even hostile groups. One result of physical population shifts and expanded sexual access was miscegenation (Harms 1981, 30).
Central Africa in the Caribbean: Transcending Time, Transforming Cultures by Maureen Warner-Lewis