By H. Kleinkauf, Hans von Döhren
Items of secondary metabolism from fermentation and mobile tradition are mostly prescribed drugs, starting from conventional antibacterials like beta-lactams, new iteration compounds like dalbaheptides and lantibiotics to immunomodulators and antitumor medicines. the key fields of software of those low volume/high fee items are human and veterinary medication in addition to plant defense. during this quantity functionally established screening techniques and the purposes of molecular genetics within the discovery and procedure development of compounds are emphasised. in addition to the exploitation of latest assets the transforming into figuring out of biosynthetic strategies allows the id of the genetic backgrounds. subject matters incorporated are: Novel Receptor-Active Compounds - Microbial Lipids - Microbial Siderophores - beta-Lactam Antibiotics - Peptide Antibiotics - Lantibiotics - Glycopeptide Antibiotics (Dalbaheptides) - Aminoglycosides - items from Basidiomycetes - Cyclosporins - Secondary items from Plant Cells - Antitumor brokers
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Both features, accumulation of This phosphorylation-controlled multistep precursors and limitation of repressing process involves adenylate cyclase and metabolites seem to be involved (DEMAIN, CAMP-mediated gene regulation. , 1990). The perti(STEWART,1993) and streptomycetes (CHAnent regulatory mechanism may be similar to TER and BIBB,Chapter 2, this volume). Nitrogen depletion again is a determining those shown for other global microbial regulfactor in many antibiotic fermentations (SHAations.
JENSEN cases. Carbon sources are known but poorly and DEMAIN,1995; DEMAIN,1989). Deamiunderstood tools in natural product pro- nation of L-valine in the biosynthesis of tylocesses. Readily assimilated compounds, e. , sin is subject to catabolite regulation by amglucose repress production while other car- monium ions (TANAKA,1986). 26 I General Aspects of Secondary Metabolism In bacteria, a stringent response is caused by nitrogen limitation (CASHEL,1975) and the appearance of non-acylated tRNAs.
Griseus. , 1992). , 1994; GEIGER,1994). Similar to other photobacteria, luminescence is strongly influenced by the density of the cell culture. V. hurveyi synthesizes the above small extracellular molecule, which accumulates in the growth medium and induces luminescence by luciferase and FMNH2-coupled oxidation of a long-chain fatty aldehyde. , 1994). , 1992). The signaling pathway of light emission which is induced in presence of the above mentioned butyrolactones seems to involve transmembrane signaling proteins as recep- 29 tors.
Biotechnology, Products of Secondary Metabolism by H. Kleinkauf, Hans von Döhren