By G. Antranikian, G. Antranikian, M. Ciaramella, M.S. da Costa, E.A. Galinski, R. Ladenstein, S. Maloney, V.T. Marteinsson, M. Moracci, R. Müller, J. van der Oost, F.M. Pisani, D. Prieur, N.J. Russell, M. Rossi, H. Santos, R. Sharp, W.M. de Vos
During this designated factor assessment articles summarize the main striking positive aspects of microorganisms which may live on less than severe stipulations. those microorganisms are tailored to dwelling at a hundred° C in volcanic springs, at low temperatures within the chilly polar seas, at excessive strain within the deep sea, at very high and low pH values (pH 0-1 or pH 10-11), or at very excessive salt concentrations (35%). the most recent findings at the molecular biology and the protein constitution of those unique organisms are offered. moreover, the aptitude functions of extremophiles are reviewed, together with the construction of enzymes, appropriate solutes and using those extremophiles within the degradation of xenobiotics.
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Abyssi strain GE5 was higher for 400 atm , relatively to 200 and 1 atm. These authors  suggested that the deep-sea smokers could represent "windows to a subsurface biosphere". If such a biosphere existed, the inhabitants should be exposed to a pressure (both hydrostatic and lithostatic) above the pressure existing on the seafloor. Whether or not the black smokers correspond to windows to an unexplored subsurface biotope, it is clear that deep biotopes inhabited by microorganisms exist and are certainly more expended than previously expected (man-made pressurized systems should be also investigated).
Ladenstein, G. Antranikian 1 H y p e r t h e r m o p h i l e s - Archaea and Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . 1 Hyperthermophilic Proteins - Amino Acid Composition and Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proteins are Only Marginally Stable, but the Forces Holding Them Together are Highly Cooperative . . . . . . . . . 2 39 40 41 Protein (Thermo)Stability and Energetic Optimization of Weak Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A d a p t a t i o n s to H i g h Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . T a x o n o m y a n d P h y l o g e n y of P s y c h r o b a r o p h i l e s . . . . . . M o l e c u l a r Biology o f Barophiles . . . . . . . . . . . 3 T h e r m o p h i l i c Life at D e e p - S e a H y d r o t h e r m a l Vents . . . . . Taxonomy of Deep-Sea Hyperthermophiles .............. Responses to H y d r o s t a t i c Pressure ................... 30 30 31 4 Conclusions 32 5 References .........................
Biotechnology of Extremophiles by G. Antranikian, G. Antranikian, M. Ciaramella, M.S. da Costa, E.A. Galinski, R. Ladenstein, S. Maloney, V.T. Marteinsson, M. Moracci, R. Müller, J. van der Oost, F.M. Pisani, D. Prieur, N.J. Russell, M. Rossi, H. Santos, R. Sharp, W.M. de Vos