By Sharon Walker
This self-teaching advisor explains the fundamental recommendations and basics in all of the significant subtopics of biotechnology. The content material advances logically from the fundamentals of molecular and mobile biology to extra advanced themes corresponding to DNA, reproductive cloning, experimental systems, infectious illnesses, immunology, the Human Genome venture, new drug discoveries, and genetic problems.
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Remember that a given base always pairs with the same partner, adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine (complementary base pairing). Also remember that a nucleotide is a molecule containing an organic base and a phosphorylated sugar. Theoretically, if the appropriate nucleotides are available, each base on each strand will pick up its matched nucleotide pair out of the nucleoplasm. ) The sugars and the phosphates of the new, juxtapositioned nucleotide will join together with their phosphodiester linkage to form the backbone and voilà!
Early researchers observing this structure saw a folded structure (reticulum) protruding into the cytoplasm (endoplasmic). The folded structure provides surface area where chemical reactions can take place. Ribosomes are frequently associated with the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. R. a rough appearance. You will hear this called the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Protein synthesis is intense on the rough endoplasmic reticulum surface. R. are smooth, lacking the knobby surface caused by ribosomes.
Meiosis, shown in Figures 2-10 and 2-11, is the process to prepare germ cells or gametes. A germ cell contains only one chromosome from each parent and is designed to fuse with a germ cell from another individual to produce a genetically unique offspring. Cells that contain only one chromosome from each pair are said to be haploid (one copy), Figure 2-10 Meiosis I whereas normal cells are diploid (two copies). Eggs are germ cells from females and sperm are germ cells from males. On the surface, producing a germ cell would appear to be easy to do: simply pair up the chromosomes, divide the cell, and send one of each chromosome pair to each new cell.
Biotechnology Demystified by Sharon Walker