By Peter Gottschalk
Wondering the normal depiction of India as a country divided among spiritual groups, Gottschalk indicates that people dwelling in India have a number of identities, a few of which lower throughout non secular limitations. The tales narrated via villagers residing within the northern kingdom of Bihar depict daily social interactions that go beyond the straightforward divide of Hindu and Muslim.
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Extra resources for Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India
30. , p. 190. , eastward from a Persian perspective) the river known today as the Sindhu or Indus. 31. , pp. 19–20. 32. , p. 125. 33. , Alberuni’s India, Edward C. Sachau, trans. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971, p. 7. 34. Kalhana, Rajatara4gini: The Saga of the Kings of Ka:mir, Ranjit Sitaram Pandit, trans. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1990 (1935), pp. xxxiv–xxxv. 35. The warrior-king division or varna of the classical Indian social model. 36. Kalhana, p. 352. 37 Furthermore, Kalhana implied a shared identity among those of “this country” in juxtaposition to invaders as he explained that, “When overrun by the impious Dards, Bhauttas [Ladakhis] and Mlecchas [Huns] this country had lost religion, [King Bhairava] had promulgated the observance of religious conduct by settling the people from the land of the Aryas .
Lorenzen, Kabir Legends and Ananta-das’s Kabir Parachai. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 18. 40. Hess, p. 42. 41. Nirmal Dass, trans. Songs of Kabir from the Adi Granth. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991, p. 155. Multiple Identities, Singular Representations 21 through heartfelt devotion. The experience of this inner existential reality demonstrated the insignificance of external religious association. Kabir says, plunge into Ram! There: no Hindu. 42 Further, Kabir used his typically outrageous language aggressively to kick out the very props by which some “Hindus” and “Turks” sought to set up their platform of exclusivist truth claims, whether texts, beliefs, or practices.
Daniel Gold, “Clan and Lineage among the Sants: Seed, Service, Substance” in The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition, Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, eds. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1987, pp. 305–328. 47. W. H. McLeod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996 (1968), pp. 158, 161. 48. A Hindu renunciant who lives an ascetic life in pursuit of release from the cycle of rebirth. 49. Van der Veer, pp. 45–46. 50. , p. 50. 51. , p. 25. For an in-depth examination of these efforts in Banaras, see Vasudha Dalmia.
Beyond Hindu and Muslim: Multiple Identity in Narratives from Village India by Peter Gottschalk