By Justin Marozzi
For far of its amazing existence, Baghdad, recognized for hundreds of years because the "City of Peace," loved either cultural and advertisement preeminence. for 5 centuries it used to be the seat of the Abbasid Empire, a surprise of glittering palaces, beautiful parks, really good mosques, and Islamic schools. It used to be a urban boasting the main finished astronomers, mathematicians, medical professionals, musicians, and poets—it used to be the following, in the course of the caliphs, that the good Arabic vintage One Thousand and One Nights was once set. With its teeming markets watered via the Tigris, Baghdad used to be a thriving buying and selling emporium, attracting retailers from primary Asia to the Atlantic; its financial system was once the envy of West and East alike.
Yet Baghdad's population have additionally obvious many negative hardships, from epidemics and famines to invasions and devastating floods. And it has additionally been some of the most violent towns on the earth. whilst U.S. troops entered in 2003, they grew to become the most recent members in a turbulent background stretching again to the city's founding in 762. Over so much of its thirteen-century background, Baghdad has persevered the guideline of brutal strongmen, from capricious caliphs to Saddam Hussein; and it has suffered violent occupations by the hands of its conquerors, from the Mongol Hulagu, grandson of Genghis Khan, to Tamerlane, often called the "Sword Arm of Israel."
Here, during this shiny new history—the first released in English in approximately a century—Justin Marozzi brings to existence the complete splendorous and tumultuous tale of what was the best capital in the world.
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Extra info for Baghdad: City of Peace, City of Blood--A History in Thirteen Centuries
Many of these features reappeared in the post-1979 constitution. Mozaffar od-Din Shah’s successor, his son Mohammad Ali Shah, had more autocratic instincts than his father. He resolved from the start, although he took an oath of loyalty to the constitution, to overturn it and restore the previous form of untrammelled monarchy, with Russian help. Opposition to constitutionalism began also to harden from the 28 T he B ac k gro und : Ma Chegoneh Ma Shodim? religious side. Through 1907 and the first half of 1908 the Majles passed measures for the reform of taxation and finance, education and judicial matters.
They are alien and often abhorrent to Sunni Muslims, elsewhere in the Islamic world, who regard them as idolatrous and as innovations not justified by religious texts. In 1979 they 23 R e vo l uti o na ry I r a n were familiar to all Iranians; even to socialists, secular nationalists, atheists or modernizers, soldiers or rich playboys who had turned away from Iran’s religious tradition. The Ashura processions in particular made a template for the public expression of collective solidarity and moral feeling that was significant in the revolution – as well as reinforcing the common understanding among all classes of Shi‘a beliefs about the Emams.
It had been arranged previously that Bakhtiar, Bazargan, Qarabaghi and others would meet that afternoon at Kazem Jafrudi’s house in 10 P rol ogue : ‘ Te n Days of Dawn ’ North Tehran. Jafrudi had been a member of the Majles under the Shah and was a friend of both Bakhtiar and Bazargan. But as the time of the meeting drew closer Jafrudi advised Bakhtiar by telephone that he should not come after all: The prime minister had arranged to come straight from his office with Dr Abbasqoli Bakhtiar. After taking off in the helicopter from the cadet training college, he had landed at Aqdassiyeh.
Baghdad: City of Peace, City of Blood--A History in Thirteen Centuries by Justin Marozzi