By Laurence G. Britton
Written by way of Laurence Britton, who has over twenty years' adventure within the fields of static ignition and method fireplace and explosion dangers study, this source addresses a space now not commonly lined in approach defense criteria or literature: figuring out and lowering power dangers linked to static electrical energy. The publication covers the character of static electrical energy, features and powerful energies of alternative static assets, innovations for comparing static electrical energy risks, normal bonding, grounding, and different suggestions used to manage static or hinder ignition, gases and beverages, powders and hybrid combinations.
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The volumetric charge densities found in charged liquids typically range from 1 to 5000 mC/m3. 0 and molecular weight 100, the involvement of molecules in the net charge carrying process is one part per trillion. 023 × 1027 molecules. 6 × 1014 electrons. 023 × 1018 molecules, approximately 27 ppm of these molecules carry an elementary charge. 8, where the charge is trapped in a surface layer ~1 mm thick. 4. ” These are components that are not deliberately added and which may be present at less than detectable concentrations.
Second, it is assumed that minimal ignition occurs in a 3 mm diameter hotspot formed sufficiently far from the electrode to minimize heat losses. This distance is assumed to be about 2 mm. 2). 9 mJ. The maximum energy might achieve about 10 mJ assuming a charge transfer of £1 mC, a hotspot diameter £10 mm and an average field of about 20 kV/cm. 1). 3) and the loss in QV/2 potential energy is 45 mJ. The maximum energy is 112–225 mJ for charge transfers in the range 25–50 mC. 3). The disparity can be explained if bulking brushes are less effective in igniting dust clouds than gas mixtures of equal spark ignition energy.
2), so that Lycopodium’s MIE of 30–100 mJ was interpreted as 100 mJ. Numerous other MIE evaluations give Lycopodium’s MIE as approximately 20 mJ. 5. Ignition Probability Considerations Assuming that the effective energy of bulking brush discharges with respect to dust ignition is a continuum from about 1 mJ up to maybe 10–20 mJ, the infrequent occurrence of silo explosions even where easily ignitable dust is present suggests that most discharges have effective energies at the low end of this range (6–5).
Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations by Laurence G. Britton