By John Edward Cantle (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
The choice of oxidant depends upon the flame temperature and composition required for the production of free atoms. These temperatures vary the molecular or chemical form of the element. Air and acetylene produce flame temperatures of about 2300°C and permit the analysis by atomic absorption of some thirty or so elements. The nitrous oxideacetylene flame is some 650°C hotter and extends the atomic absorption technique to around 66 elements. It also permits the successful analysis of most elements by flame atomic emission, in many cases at fractional parts per million levels, providing adequate spectral resolution is available.
These atoms are excited by collisional processes and the emission spectrum of the element or elements is produced. Thus, by choosing the appropriate chemical element for the cathode, the atomic spectrum of that element may be readily generated. The cathode is usually surrounded by an insulating shield of mica, ceramic material or glass. This ensures that the discharge is confined to the interior of the cathode and results in an improvement in the intensity of the emitted lines. The anode can be of almost any shape.
16 A e C DISPLAY E F Fig. 1. General schematic of an atomic absorption spectrometer. 11. THE COMPONENTS OF THE SPECTROMETER A. The atomiser 1. , air or nitrous oxide). The sample solution is introduced into the flame using a nebuliser in which the passage of the oxidant creates a partial vacuum by the venturi effect and thus the sample solution is drawn up through a capillary. Thus, an aerosol is produced having a wide variety of droplet sizes. This process is shown in Fig. 2. Two basic types of flame atomising systems have been used for atomic absorption.
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry by John Edward Cantle (Eds.)