By Author Unknown, Lev R. Ginzburg
Analyses of ecological danger evaluation for biotechnology as seen predominantly through scientists doing learn during this quarter. The emphasis is on ecological dangers linked to the discharge of genetically-engineered organisms within the surroundings
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One method to separate the die-off of organism from the release rate in transport is to model the expected die-off rate. This would allow an investigator to predict the organism population each day at the site after 46 Surface Transport of Microorganisms by Water application and before a rainfall or irrigation event. Again, complete coverage of this topic is beyond the scope of this chapter, but an article that may be helpful to interested readers is entitled "Modeling Enteric Bacterial Die-Off: A Review" (Crane and Moore 1986).
Rosea is not considered to be an effective biological-control agent in either place (Howarth and Medeiros 1989; Clarke et al. 1984), leading one to seriously question the continued introduction of this predator. 3 Reduction of Target Pest When imported natural enemies result in a substantial reduction in abundance of the target pest, we can expect concomitant effects on nontarget species that have interacted with the target pest prior to introduction. For example, Neuenschwander et al. (1987) reported that, following the biological control of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero) in Africa, densities of native predaceous insects that previously exploited the exotic mealybug declined sharply.
Insectan natural enemies of insect pests and weeds will continue to be important in biological control; however, additional kinds of enemies will likely play an increased role in the future. These include entomogenous nematodes that vector pathogenic bacteria (families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae), predaceous mites in the family Phytoseiidae, and pathogenic microorganisms altered through biotechnology. 3 Empirical Record Since 1960, a number of reviews of classical biological-control projects have been published.
Assessing Ecological Risks of Biotechnology by Author Unknown, Lev R. Ginzburg