By Georges Roux
Newly revised and containing details from contemporary excavations and found artifacts, Ancient Iraq covers the political, cultural, and socio-economic background from Mesopotamia days of prehistory to the Christian period.
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Additional info for Ancient Iraq (3rd Edition)
J ,j. ... - ,j. t. ;.. ;. sh Sud ..... ,ja. ,. -.. ~ ~ D J. T ,.... r.. DHu' .... a. eo t. In ,... I. d. ~ k ...... J. J. J mllm - - . DH gh .. ( ,.. ,. :.. J .... .. ,. II y nuun .... Dad:- ThiJ 1etwr in Gulf Arabic is pronounced ill mw:dy the ume way u DHu'. nslisb bard g (u in goltl) in the Gulf. ) 1 xxviii In addition to the above, there is one combination consonant laam- alif. This must be u$ed when this series of letters occurs, and it is a non-joiner: Name Initial Medial Final Separate laam-alif "i )l )l "i There is a letter which the Arabs call taa' marbauTah and which is referred to in this book as the 'hidden t'.
General Since this book is intended to teach you to recognise the Arabic script, rather than to learn to write it, the above remarks should be sufficient for the purpose. As already mentioned, further information and tips will be given in the units. Finally, it is better to think of the Arabic script as basically handwriting (since it is always cursive, no matter how produced: by hand, on a typewriter or computer). For this reason- and by dint of what the Arabs regard as the artistic nature of the script, calligraphy being a highly developed art in the Arab world -you are likely to see more variations of the form of the letten than you would in English.
Siio and shiin as simply long lines, ironing out their spilces, and often with a small hook below at the beginning. Arabic writing is fun. Look at it as an art form! com, C Photodisc/Getty Images, C james C. com Pack: C Stockbyte/Getty Images XXXll 1 ~r~' as-salaamu :alai-kum Hello! In this unit you will learn how to • Say hello and goodbye • Greet someone • Give your name and ask for someone else's • Say where you are from and ask someone where they are from New words and phrases o4t CD1, TR2 Listen to the recording.
Ancient Iraq (3rd Edition) by Georges Roux