By Stephen Tanner
Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the area used to be riveted as American army energy contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. by way of spring 2002, the United States started to draw down its forces, its project complete: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. was once America's effortless victory evidence of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans in basic terms eyeing the novices as they've got watched international armies in centuries previous, understanding time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as an important crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional fresh instances, Britain and Russia. Now the USA needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has develop into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever entire army background of Afghanistan illuminates the vast ancient context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, probably, concerning the hazards which can lie forward.
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Extra info for Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban
We can expect, for example, that the original garrison of Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus consisted largely of men with feet crippled by frostbite. Even a soldier with a badly sprained ankle would find himself at least temporarily assigned to a new foundation. On occasions such as in Arachosia, when there was not a large supply of invalids, Alexander generally assigned Greek troops as garrisons, not wanting to part with his elite Macedonians. Egypt's Alexandria aside, there had been little motive to establish new foundations in the midst of established populations; but both reasons for founding cities increased as the army marched farther east.
As for Alexander siring a child, it was reported to have taken thirteen days, a length of time that probably indicates his difficulty with the process more than his enthusiasm. When the Macedonians entered Areia, around modern Herat, the satrap Satibarzanes turned himself in and then was promptly reinstated in his post. Alexander welcomed expressions of fealty from the Persian nobility, and relied on their experience to keep their provinces running smoothly. While the Macedonian army at this stage has been compared to a traveling seat of government, it had neither the skills nor familiarity with local conditions to supplant the Persian bureaucracy.
On the Jaxartes, Cyrus had constructed a string of seven fortress towns along the river to guard against Scythian incursions. A party of Macedonians was attacked while foraging in the area and a number were killed and taken prisoner. Rushed to arms, the army cornered the assailants on a steep mountain but at first were beaten back by a shower of missiles. Alexander, in the front line as always, was shot in the leg with an arrow and suffered a broken fibula; nevertheless, the troops stormed the mountain and killed several thousand of their antagonists.
Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban by Stephen Tanner