By Bruce S. McEwen (auth.), Dr. Detlev Ganten M.D., Ph.D., Dr. Donald Pfaff Ph.D. (eds.)
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Evidence now suggests that it may be regulated by glucocorticoids in a manner similar to PNMT. Hypophysectomy decreases HIOMT levels in the adult rat pineal, and both dexamethasone and S-adenosyl methionine administration restore enzyme levels to control values, although they have no effect in intact rats (Sandrock et al. 1980). It remains to be established whether HIOMT degradation is accelerated by the absence of glucocorticoids, but the initial similarities between the control of PNMT and HIOMT in adults are striking.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:2767 -2771 Johnson LK, Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (1979) Mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor function. In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid hormone action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 305-326 Johnson M, Ross 0, Meyers M, Rees R, Bunge R, Wakshull E, Burton H (1976) Synaptic vesicle cytochemistry changes when cultured sympathetic neurons develop cholinergic interactions. Nature 262 :308-31 0 Jonakait GM, Wolf J, Cochard P, Goldstein M, Black IB (1979) Selective loss of noradrenergic phenotypic characters in neuroblasts of the rat embryo.
Do glucocorticoids play a similar role in maintenance or induction of medullary PNMT during development? A point that must be kept in mind is the considerable variation among species in the number and distribution of epinephrine- and norepinephrine-atoring cells within the adult medulla. For instance, almost 100% of guinea pig medullary cells have PNMT and store epinephrine, in contrast to 80% in rats and humans and 60% in cats (poherecky and Wurtman 1971). It is not clear what determines this variability.
Adrenal Actions on Brain by Bruce S. McEwen (auth.), Dr. Detlev Ganten M.D., Ph.D., Dr. Donald Pfaff Ph.D. (eds.)