Download A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition) by William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton PDF

By William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton

ISBN-10: 0813343747

ISBN-13: 9780813343747

This accomplished paintings presents a penetrating research of recent center japanese historical past, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, throughout the problem of Western imperialism, to the yankee invasion of Iraq and Iran’s new impression within the quarter. After introducing the reader to the region’s historical past from the origins of Islam within the 7th century, A heritage of the fashionable heart East makes a speciality of the prior centuries of profound and sometimes dramatic swap. even supposing equipped round a framework of political historical past, the publication additionally rigorously integrates social, cultural, and fiscal advancements right into a unmarried, expertly crafted account. In updating this fourth version of the overdue William Cleveland’s well known introductory textual content, Martin Bunton addresses fresh transformative advancements within the heart East, charting the decline within the peace clients among Israelis and Palestinians, elaborating upon the resurgence of Islam, and devoting a brand new bankruptcy to “America’s stricken second within the heart East,” which info the aftermath of the Iraq struggle and Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

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Qxd 10/14/08 8:45 AM Page 25 Islamic Civilization to the Fifteenth Century — C H A P T E R 2 25 Proclamation of Faith (Shahadah). With the words “I attest that there is only one God and Muhammad is his Prophet,” Muslims affirm their faith in Islam. As noted previously, the basic religious principle of Islam is monotheism. The deity of the Quran is an all-powerful, righteous God of judgment whose commands are not to be questioned. The second element of the faith is the acceptance of Muhammad’s role as the final Prophet of God.

Muhammad created a community (ummah) in which the laws of human behavior in daily life were prescribed by God. It would be an exaggeration to call Arabia a cohesive, unified state after the surrender of Mecca. Nevertheless, the transformation created by the Prophet had been substantial. He had implanted the core concept of a community of believers united in their recognition of a single Supreme Deity and in their acceptance of that deity’s authority in their daily lives; he had conveyed notions of social morality that forbade alcohol and the blood feud and that recognized the legal status of women and demanded protection for the less fortunate in society.

But no monarch could maintain absolute control of an empire that stretched from Morocco to India. In the late eighth century, North Africa slipped away from Baghdad’s authority and became a region of autonomous Islamic states. During the ninth century, independent and often short-lived dynasties rose and fell in various parts of Iran. qxd 18 10/14/08 8:45 AM Page 18 P A R T O N E — The Development of Islamic Civilization tenth century, and the imperial court at Baghdad set a style of royal behavior that was imitated in provincial capitals and breakaway dynasties throughout the vast territories in which Islam had become established.

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